Hydroboreal | Homeostasis & Brown Cells
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Homeostasis & Brown Cells

Human homeostasis:

 

Human homeostasis refers to the body’s ability to physiologically regulate its inner environment to ensure its stability in response to fluctuations in the outside environment and the weather. The liver, the kidneys, and the brain (hypothalamus, the autonomic nervous system and the endocrine system help maintain homeostasis. The liver is responsible for metabolizing toxic substances and maintaining carbohydrate metabolism. The kidneys are responsible for regulating blood water levels, re-absorption of substances into the blood, maintenance of salt and ion levels in the blood, regulation of blood pH, and excretion of urea and other candies. An inability to maintain homeostasis may lead to death or a disease, a condition known as homeostatic imbalance. For instance, heart failure may occur when negative feedback mechanisms become overwhelmed and destructive positive feedback mechanisms take over. Other diseases which result from a homeostatic imbalance include diabetes, dehydration, hypoglycemia, hyperglycemia, gout and any disease caused by the presence of a toxin in the bloodstream. Medical intervention can help restore homeostasis and possibly prevent permanent damage to the organs.

 

Temperature
Humans are warm-blooded, maintaining a near-constant body temperature. Thermoregulation is an important aspect of human homeostasis. Heat is mainly produced by the liver and muscle contractions. Humans have been able to adapt to a great diversity of climates, including hot humid and hot arid. High temperatures pose serious stresses for the human body, placing it in great danger of injury or even death. In order to deal with these climatic conditions, humans have developed physiologic and cultural modes of adaptation. Temperature may enter a circle of positive feedback, when temperature reaches extremes of 45°C (113°F), at which cellular proteins denature, causing the active site in proteins to change, thus causing metabolism stop and ultimately death.

 

Iron
Iron is an essential element for human beings. The control of this necessary but potentially toxic substance is an important part of many aspects of human health and disease. Hematologists have been especially interested in the system of iron metabolism because iron is essential to red blood cells. In fact, most of the human body’s iron is contained in red blood cells’ hemoglobin, and iron deficiency is the most common cause of anemia. When body levels of iron are too low, then hepcidin in the duodenal epithelium is decreased. This causes an increase in ferroportin activity, stimulating iron uptake in the digestive system. An iron surplus will stimulate the reverse of this process. In individual cells, an iron deficiency causes responsive element binding protein (IRE-BP) to bind to iron responsive elements (IRE) on mRNAs for transferrin receptors, resulting in increased production of transferrin receptors. These receptors increase binding of transferrin to cells, and therefore stimulating iron uptake.

 

Energy
Energy balance is the homeostasis of energy in living systems. It is measured with the following equation: Energy intake = internal heat produced + external work + storage. It generally uses the energy unit Calorie (or kilogram calorie), which equals the energy needed to increase the temperature of 1 kg of water by 1 °C. This is about 4.184 kJ.

 

Blood composition
The balance of many blood solutes belongs to the scope of renal physiology.

 

Sugar
Blood glucose is regluated with two hormones, insulin and glucagon, both released from the pancreas. When blood sugar levels become too high, insulin is released from the pancreas. Glucose, or sugar, is stored in body cells as glycogen, lowering the blood sugar levels. On the other hand, when blood sugar levels become too low, glucagon is released. It promotes the release of glycogen, converted back into glucose. This increases blood sugar levels. If the pancreas is for any reason unable to produce enough of these two hormones, diabetes results.

 

Osmoregulation
Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of bodily fluids to maintain the homeostasis of the body’s water content; that is it keeps the body’s fluids from becoming too dilute or too concentrated. Osmotic pressure is a measure of the tendency of water to move into one solution from another by osmosis. The higher the osmotic pressure of a solution the more water wants to go into the solution. The kidneys are used to remove excess ions from the blood, thus affecting the osmotic pressure. These are then expelled as urine.

 

Pressure
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a hormone system that helps regulate long-term blood pressure and extracellular volume in the body.

 

Calcium
When blood calcium becomes too low, calcium-sensing receptors in the parathyroid gland become activated. This results in the release of PTH, which acts to increase blood calcium, e.g. by release from bones (increasing the activity of bone-degrading cells called osteoclasts). This hormone also causes calcium to be reabsorbed from urine and the GI tract. Calcitonin, released from the C cells in the thyroid gland, works the opposite way, decreasing calcium levels in the blood by causing more calcium to be fixed in bone.

 

Acid-base
The kidneys maintain acid-base homeostasis by regulating the pH of the blood plasma. Gains and losses of acid and base must be balanced. The study of the acid-base reactions in the body is acid base physiology.

 

Volume
The body’s homeostatic control mechanisms, which maintain a constant internal environment, ensure that a balance between fluid gain and fluid loss is maintained. The hormones ADH (Anti-diuretic Hormone, also known as vasopressin) and Aldosterone play a major role in this.

  • If the body is becoming fluid-deficient, there will be an increase in the secretion of these hormones (ADH), causing fluid to be retained by the kidneys and urine output to be reduced.

  • Conversely, if fluid levels are excessive, secretion of these hormones (aldosterone) is suppressed, resulting in less retention of fluid by the kidneys and a subsequent increase in the volume of urine produced.

  • If you have too much Carbon dioxide(CO2 ) in the blood, it can cause the blood to become acidic. People respirate heavily not due to low oxygen(O2 ) content in the blood, but because they have too much CO2.

 

Hemostasis
Hemostasis is the process whereby bleeding is halted. A major part of this is coagulation. Platelet accumulation causes blood clotting in response to a break or tear in the lining of blood vessels. Unlike the majority of control mechanisms in human body, the hemostasis utilizes positive feedback, for the more the clot grows, the more clotting occurs, until the blood stops. Another example of positive feedback is the release of oxytocin to intensify the contractions that take place during childbirth.

 

The systems of the body participate in maintaining homeostasis, that is, the relative constancy of the internal environment despite external environmental changes. This review offers a succinct summary of how the body’s systems function and mentions various regulatory mechanisms that allow each system to contribute to homeostasis.

 

The internal environment of the body is tissue fluid, which bathes all cells making up the body. The composition of tissue fluid must remain constant if cells are to remain alive and healthy. Tissue fluid is nourished and purified when molecules are exchanged across thin capillary walls. Tissue fluid remains constant only if the composition of blood remains constant.

 

Is the property of a system in which variables are regulated so that internal conditions remain stable and relatively constant. Examples of homeostasis include the regulation of temperature and the balance between acidity and alkalinity (pH). It is a process that maintains the stability of the human body’s internal environment in response to changes in external conditions.

 

BROWN CELLS

 

In a 1995 study by the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, 64 Indian men were taken to Antarctica where they worked outdoors for 8 weeks. The findings of this study were pretty interesting. Although these guys put on a bit of weight, there was no change in skinfold thickness, and abdominal girth DECREASED. This basically means that they put on more muscle and got more shredded.

 

When it comes to weight loss with cold therapy, what we’re most interested in is how the body increases heat production. This includes shivering and non-shivering thermogenesis.

 

Shivering can increase your metabolism by an average of 400-550% the level of your metabolism at rest. Studies have also found that shivering draws most of its energy from stored fat.

 

Although full-on shivering is an excellent way to burn those extra calories, it’s a tad discomforting for MY liking. Instead, you can stick to a temperature that causes shivering without shaking, where you simply experience an increase in muscle tone. Increased muscle tone without shaking, is classed as a low level of shivering, which still increases the energy demands on your body, and is still great for losing those extra pounds.

 

Perhaps more important than shivering, is another method of heat production called “non-shivering thermogenesis”. This involves brown fat cells, which are a good type of fat that we definitely want more of.

 

Brown fat cells play such a HUGE role in weight loss, that many scientists now even claim that reduced brown fat cell activity may be the very reason why people get obese!

 

Brown fat cells come from the same stem cells as muscle. They are more closely related to muscle than they are to the usual white fat you want to get rid of. Like muscle, brown fat contains lots of mitochondria. It specializes in burning the unwanted stored white-fat in your body, to produce heat.

 

We used to think that brown fat cells were only available in kids under the age of 10 (which is why it’s so easy for kids to stay lean). But what we’ve recently found is that after the age of 10, brown fat simply gets deactivated. It gets RE-activated during cold-exposure…

 

Not only do you activate those dormant brown fat cells during cold exposure, but through frequent and regular cold exposure, you can actually increase the number of brown fat cells in your body. And after just a few weeks, your body’s ability to burn calories through brown fat cell thermogenesis, increases. This increases your resting metabolic rate (RMR), helping you to burn more calories at rest. In a study on Korean pearl divers, divers were found to have a 30% higher RMR during winter, when the water temperature was coolest at around 10°C.

 

We also have evidence that warm temperatures make you GAIN weight, since a review paper in the journal Obesity Reviews, found a link between central heating and obesity.

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As new research unveils the connection between cold water immersion and weight loss, more and more people are experimenting with this new and different way to lose weight. Ray Cronise, a NASA scientist, and a pioneer in the field of cold water immersion, managed to lose 50% more weight in half the time, simply by adding cold-water immersion to his diet and exercise regimen.

 

Remember though, Cronise didn’t achieve success from cold-water dips alone. He had a solid exercise and nutrition regimen as a foundation, and simply used cold water immersion therapy as a supplement. I suggest you do the same.